Partner description: Tuzla Commune is located 20 km to the South from Constanta Municipality and has a population of 6228 inhabitants, mostly Romanians, but also members of the Tartar, Turkish and Roma ethnicities.
It has a balanced economy, based on agriculture, industry, constructions, fishing, fish farming, trade etc
Located on the shore of the Black Sea, it benefits from a narrow, wild and picturesque beach, quite appreciated by those in need of tranquility.
Tuzla has become a major tourist attraction for the people in search of adrenaline: on Tuzla Aerodrome skydiving and entertainment flights take place. Also, Tuzla Aerodrome is the host of „Tuzla Fly In” Aero G.P. aviation event – equivalent to Formula 1 – concentrating the best military and civil pilots from the country and abroad in an astounding acrobatics show.
Tuzla commune was composed, up until the entry into force of Law 72 / 1999 related to the reinstatement of Costinesti and Horia communes of Constanta county, of the localities: Tuzla, Costinesti and Schitu. After the entry into force of the above mentioned Law, Tuzla commune is made up only of the locality of Tuzla. Tuzla commune holds a surface of 735.80 ha of land within the commune limits and more than 5800 ha outside the commune limits.
Tuzla commune is located in the Central Eastern extremity of the county, on the Balck Sea shore, 25 km from Constanta Municipality. Up until the aplication of the Law 72 / 1999, Tuzla commune was made up of the localities: Tuzla, Costinesti and Schitu. After the entry into force of the above mentioned Law, Tuzla commune is made up only of one village – Tuzla village, with the land within the commune limits adjacent to that of Eforie Sud resort. Its neighbouring areas are: to the North – the towns of Techirghiol and Eforie Sud, to the West – Topraisar commune, to the South – West – 23 August commune, to the South – East – Costinesti commune, to the East – the Black Sea.
In order to elaborate a natural potential of a region and the methodit can be used, it is crucial to be aware of the geological and hydrographical conditions of the given area.
The commune’s territory is located in the North – Eastern side of the Cobadin – Negru Vodă Plateau. As a result, the entire evolution of the commune’s territory is highly connected to the evolution of the neighbouring plateau. The landscape’s evolution is determined by the geological substrata, by the shaping action of the external agents, to which, in the later decades, the man’s action has been added, which introduced new elements in the process of terrain shaping, by performing irrigation systems and canals. Tuzla commune’s terrain is generally flat, covered in plants towards the sea (East) and to the North (towards Techirghiol lake), having the highest raise of 60.00 m (Baldaran hill). The Eastern limit is represented by the cliff with the maximum height in the Tuzla Cape area and slopes down to the North (Eforie) and to the South (Costinesti), ending in a beach. Tuzla locality is situated on land which constitutes a valley towards the Tuzla lake, with the maximum height from the datum line of 40.00 m at 300 m South from the village and of 300 m East, with slopes from the South – 2.5 %; East – 3.8% and West – 3%, the valley course passing through the village center. The valley is oriented to the North, facing Tuzla pond, which is a gulf of Techirghiol lake, separated by the actual lake through a dam.
The hydrographic network of Tuzla commune is represented by the Black Sea, the irrigation canals located at the height from the given datum of +60.00 m on the Baldaran hill – Tuzla lake.
The soil is defined as the most recent natural formation, from the surface of the lithosphere, represented by a series of horizons that were formed and are permanently forming by the transformation of rocks and material, by the conjugated action of physical, chemical and biological factors at the junction point of the lithosphere and the atmosphere. Emerged from the action of the environmental factors, the soil is a natural corpus, forming and evolving at the surface of the dry land by the disintegration and alteration of rocks under the action of (vegetal and animal) organisms, under different climate and terrain conditions. The chernozems are specific to the Dobrujan steppe, occupying the largest part of the county’s surface. The typical soil is that of arid climate, the most common being the chernozem, naturally fertile, suitable for grain harvest, technical plants, etc.
The administrative territory of Tuzla commune – being located in Constanta county – „marine seaside area”, an area parellel to the sea shore, is charcaterized by Sarmatic scale sediment to the South, interrupted by the „string” of littoral lakes. The rock sediments are represented by types of scale, clay and marl, covered in a loess stratum of variable thickness.
Tempreature regime – The climatic regime of Tuzla commune area is continental, typical for steppe, due to the Western circulation and influenced by local factors (the vicinity of the Black Sea, the terrains’s morphology). The annual mean temperatures are higher than the country’s mean values, namely 11.3° C. Tuzla commune benefits from an actual development potential, in oreder to become a touristic or rural tourism resort.
Partner – Agigea commune Mayor’s Office (Constanta county) Romania
Partner description:Located only 8 km away from Constanta Municipality, Agigea commune spans on 4528 ha and is composed of two rural localities, Lazu and Agigea. The two localities are severed by the Danube – Black Sea canal.
The vast agricultural surfaces located on the commune’s administrative territory have influenced the commune’s economic direction, most of the economic agents carrying out activities with agricultural products. The varied and heavy duty traffic conditions, the Danube – Black Sea Canal, the double and electrified railway with branches for Constanta Sud Agigea Port, the national roads, represent the factors facilitating and promoting the internal and international trade, in such a manner that, in the future, Agigea can become a key trade centre.
Lazu locality, subordinated to Agigea commune, has developed as a residential centre. The housing complex makes up a modern,quiet and accesible neighbourhood, with all utilities available.
Agigea harbours, at present, two balneological sanatoriums. The TB Sanatorium is one of a kind in our country, specialized in treating osteoarticular tuberculosis.
The littoral dunes of Agigea represent a floristic reserve, located near the «Prof.I.Borcea» marine zoological resort, 50 m from the Black Sea, in Constanta county, with a surface of 25 ha. The natural reserve of Agigea, which acquired the Reserve status in 1939, is the sole sand dune reserve on the Romanian seaside. It is represented by a 8 – 10 m plateau made by the sedimentation of the sand from the North, coming from an old marine gulf, presently covered by Agigea lake. There are more than 120 vegetal charachteristic species, such as Cakilemaritima, Sachys maritime, Carexarenania etc. The reserve’s particular fauna is represented by the Dobrujan tortoise (Testudograecaibera), an infrequent incidence in the Romanian fauna, but also Mantis religiosa, Ameles, Saga etc.
From the agricultural and climatic point of view, Agigea commune can be included in Area I, with a “hot- dry” climate. The high value of thermal resources favors the growth of grains, mainlytechnical and industrial plants, but also vine or fruit crops.
The economic activity of Agigea is carried out in various domains: harbour activity in Constanta Sud – Agigea Port, merchandise traffic and manufacture activity in Agigea Free Area, merchandise railway, road and river transport on the Danube – Black Sea canal, furniture industry, bakery, trade, tourist services etc.
An important sector of activity present on the territory of Agigea commune is agriculture (farming and animal husbandry). Wheat, barley, two-rowed barley, sunflower, corn are grown, as well as dairy cows and sheep.
By the High Royal Decree no. 810, the Agigea Marine Zoological Resort was founded, and the professor IoanBorcea has been nominated as resort Manager.
Established on a 25 ha land, on the territory of Agigea village, between the Black Sea and the Techirghiol and Agigea – Ghiol lakes, 1.5 km from the General Ionescu (small) railway station and about 10 km from Constanta city, the Zoo Resort, isolated from the littoral, portrays nowadays a genuine oasis: numerous tree plantations create a green island in the midst of dry sands. Among the purposes of this resort: collecting and observing the fauna and flora of the Romanian waters of the Black Sea.
The resort’s land comprises a natural vegetation typical to marine dunes. The dunes were formed by the accumulation of the wind-carried sand from an old gulf, nowadays occupied by the Agigealake. The dunes were colonized by a conventional vegetation.
Surrounded and protected by the influence of the biological factor (both anthropogenic and zoogenic), it kept its dune aspect, populated by specific fauna and flora and has caught the eye of many naturalists, from the very beginning. The colonization of these dunes by the vegetation is influenced by their height and exposure, by the size of the sand grains, by the salt and humus content.
In 1939, the area is declared Natural Reserve, being the only Sand Dune Reserve on the Romanian seaside. Based on the botanical research conducted within the reserve, more than 120 species of plants innate to the Mediterranean area were discovered, but also plants characteristic to the Atlantic and Caspian terrain, many of them of key scientific interest. Among the floristic infrequent occurrences, we can detail: Sand cloves, Sand cabbage, Convolvulus arvensis, Ephedra distachya etc. the fauna is represented by: land tortoises, Mantis religiosa and various sand bugs.
After 1989, more precisely on June 28, 1990, the resort entered the patrimony of AlexandruIoanCuza University of Iasi, receiving the name of its illustrious founder, Professor IoanBorcea(1879-1936).
On the territory of Agigea commune, there are two national importance objectives: Constanta Sud – Agigea Free Area and Navigable Canals Administration –Agigea.
The port basins and berths are connected through the Danube – Black Sea canal, in the vicinity of the Free Area.
In the vessels’ access area, on the canal, ships up to 5000 dwt are admitted. Port precincts 1 occupies a surfaces of 19 ha and comprises covered and uncovered storage spaces, with road and railway connection; precincts 2 has a surface of 10.3 ha for industrial and manufacture activities; precincts 3 – harboursthe Container Terminal.
Benefitting from maritime, river, railway and road infrastructure, connecting various supply sources and sales markets in Central Europe, the Mediterranean Basin, the Near and Middle East, the area is witness to an intense merchandise traffic, also favoured by a Ferryboat line (railroad transport) and Ro-Ro terminal (vehicle transport).
The decision to promote and developConstanta SudAgigea Free Area in the vicinity of maritime and river ports (Constanta, Braila, Galati and Sulina) has been also determined by the exceptional increase of Romania’s role, including of its Danube – Black Sea transport system, within the political and economic space, as a result of Romania’s inclusion into the Economic Cooperation area of the countries bordering the Black Sea.
Partner – Cumpana commune Mayor’s Office (Constanta county) Romania
Address: Strada Constantei nr. 132, comuna Cumpana, judetul Constanta, telephone – 0241-730788, fax – 0241- 739003, email:email@example.com, website: www.primaria-cumpana.ro
Partner description:Cumpana commune is located South – West of Constanta, 5 km away and has a population of about 14,000 inhabitants. The commune is made up of the villages Cumpana and Straja. The locality’s administrative surface is of 496 ha. Cumpana commune’s profile is mainly agricultural, determined by the climate and soil conditions favourable to certain crops, but being in close proximity to Constanta Municipality, it has significant marketing opportunities. As a result, these factors imposed the development of these manufacture fields, attracting important capital into the commune.
During the past years, Cumpana has developed as a residential area. The extension of the sewerage and gas supply infrastructure, the appearance of big supermarkets in the area have accelerated the process. The locality was classified as a European village for its Sfânta Maria [Holy Mary] Community Centre: regular and prolonged shedule kindergarten, the Ballet School, the Village Museum, Telecenter and a Professional Training and Refresher Centre.
Cumpana commune is settled in one of the most challenged Romanian provinces (historically speaking) – “Dobruja” – a land between the Danube and the Sea, a giant dock swept by the winds and waves of the Black Sea.
The discovery of the “sundial” in 1960 confirms the existence of the locality from the III-rd century, AD. The territory of Cumpana commune is a part of the SouthernDobruja tectonic subunit and has been officially recognized in 1870 under the name of Hasi-dülüc, and in 1929 it receives the denomination of Cumpana.
Cumpana locality, a rural settlement located in the central – southern area of Constanta County, about 5 km North of Constanta Municipality is delineated to the South – East by Agigea locality, to the North East by Constanta Muncipality, to the North West by ValuluiTraian locality and to the South by the Danube – Black Sea canal.
Up until 1979, Cumpana commune was made up of two villages, Straja and Cumpana respectively. Pursuant to the construction of the Danube – Black Sea canal, Straja village, located in the Western side of the commune, has been dismantled, the population was transferred to Cumpana village in block of flats especially built for that purpose.
The vegetation innate to the area is typical steppe vegetation, pertaining – from the floristic point of view, to the Eastern European province – Pontica Subprovince. The reigning species are: steppe Festuca Arundiancea plants, bushes, trees and plants of the Ruderale species (Polygonumaviculare, Althaeaofficinalis, Lepidiumdraba, Carduusnutansetc). The naturally occurring vegetation on the commune’s territory has been anthropically modified and secondary pastures were created. The specific fauna is made up of rodents, reptiles, insects and birds.
Due to depositing the excavated ground on the surface of the commune, an artificial hill was created, which occupies several ha of land and on which the vegetation hardly thrives.
The territory of Cumpana commune is located in the maritime littoral climate sector. The influence of the Black Sea is felt on an area 15 – 20 km wide, thus, it encompasses this area, as well.
In the annualair temperature evolution a discrepancy of the air heating and cooling phases can be observed, as compared to the plain area. The autumn is warmer, the winters are milder, but the snow is dissipated by strong winds and with a possibility of temperature downfall of – 10, – 15 degrees centigrade, due to the Crivăț wind. The springs are short and cold and the summers are warm or very warm. The average precipitation value per annum is of 400 mm., not uniformly distributed. The aridity index is of 18.7. Summer brings rains, but in short downpours and not abundant, highly inefficient on crops.
As the world’s temperature increases, it is possible that this area’s climate suffer and experience even less natural precipitation levels and an increase of the maximum temperatures to more than 35-40 degrees centigrade.
The depth of the groundwater used to be of 10 – 12 m., even morein the undulating plains. As the Danube – Black Sea canal was built, the depth modified, in some areas the water level lifted to 5 – 6m, and in other, it descended to 15 – 16 m.
In order to make the water drinkable, it needs to be treated, but it does not contain substances that need to be removed and the chemicals level is not too much above limits.
Settled on ancient Sarmatic and Quaternary formations, on which the present terrain was formed, from water consolidated loess strata, chernozem type of soils formed, rich in Carbon, which in rainy years become highly fertile, favouring the grain and vegetable crops.
In the future, the soil, where agriculture will be continued, will compulsorily need irrigation from wells or from the Danube.
The education represents a primal community objective in any society.
General School for the I- VIII grades – an institution comprising 961 pupils and the related teaching personnel;
Kindergarten no. 1- regular schedule- 180 children registered;
“Sf.Maria” Kindergarten -prolonged schedule-145 children registered;
The mission of the School for I-VIII grades of Cumpana is to satisfy the need for instruction and education of all community members, open their horizon to civic involvement, to a profession and to exerting more of their rights.
Due to the increase in school-age population, the education sector has represented a key objective.
A new school was built in the commune, comprising 10 classrooms, benefitting from the Rural School Rehabilitation Program. As the area develops, new education spaces will be built, including a boarding school for the pupils of Constanta county.
Partner – Cumpana commune Mayor’s Office (Constanta county) Romania
Partner description: Balchik Municipality is located in the Eastern side of the Danube Plain and Dobrudzha plateau, which is situated in the South – Eastern side of the Dobrich region. Its neighbours are – to the North, General Toshevo Municipality, to the East – Kavarna Municipality, South – East – Aksakovo, to the West – Dobrich Municipality. BalchikMunicipality is one of the 14 municipalities of the country located on the shore of the Black Sea. The coastal side of the Municipality has a total length of approx. 18.5 km, which determines to what extent the tourism is important for the local economy, quite developed throughout the Black Sea coast – Albena, Balchik, Kranevoand also around the „Tuzlata“ resort. The Black Sea littoral of BalchikMunicipality can turn the town into an important port centre, with a yacht harbor and a merchandise quay. Balchik Municipality has a total surface of 524.2 sq km, 11.1% of the territory ofDobrichregion (4719.7 sq km).
The population ofBalchikMunicipality represents a 10.76% of the Dobrich region population. It is third in terms of number of inhabitants among the region’s municipalities, second to Dobrich municipality and Dobrich municipality-village.
From the geographical point of view, the majority of the population is concentrated in the South – Eastern area of the Municipality, mainly in the Balchikmunicipal centre and Obrochishte.
The Balchik Municipality’s natural resources are extremely favorable for agricultural development. The climate conditions and the convenient soils are valuable for a large variety of crops.
The industrial sector is represented by the mining industry, including the Manganese mine of Tsarkvavillage and the scale quarries, but also the processing industry (be it food, textiles) and also the metal processing and electrical industry, less developed, but present.
Tourism is a priority sector for Balchik Municipality.
The municipality has numerous resources and traditions in developing maritime tourism. BalchikMunicipality is located by the Black Sea. Long beaches are typical to the area.
Balchik municipality is situated in the easternmost part of the Danube Plain and the Dobrudzha plateau, which islocated in the southeastern part of Dobrich region. To the north it borders General Toshevo municipality, to the east Kavarna municipality, to the southwest Aksakovo, to the west Dobrich municipality. Balchik Municipality is one of the 14 municipalities in the country, situated on the Black Sea coastline. The municipality’s coast has a total length of about 18.5 km, which deretmines the important role of tourism for the municipal economy, which is highly developed along the Black Sea coast – Albena Resort, Balchik, Kranevo and in the resort area “Tuzlata”. The Black Sea coast of Balchik creates the basis for the city to become an important port center with a yacht marina and a cargo quay. The total area of the Municipality of Balchik is 524.2 square kilometers, which represents 11.1% of the territory of Dobrich region (4719.7 sq.m).
Fig.1. Geographical location of Balchik Municipality
In geomorphological aspect, Balchik municipality falls in the seaside part of the Danube plain. From a geographic perspective, its territory is clearly divided into two parts: the coastal region and the Dobrudzha plateau.
The coastal area covers the Black Sea coastline and the Batova river valley. The length of the sea shore is 18.5 km. The coastline is slightly dismembered. It is elevated at about 150 meters above sea level. The sea shore at the mouth of the Batova River is low with a Kranevo-Albena beach area stretching over 5 km. with a total area of 296 502 square meters which makes it one of the largest beaches on the Black Sea coast. In front of the beach, the underwater slope is accumulating and is covered with medium grain and fine grain sand within 700 meters. In its hinterland, between the resorts “Albena” and the village of Kranevo there is located the vast woodland “Baltata”. To the east, the shoreline is taller but accessible, here and there terraced by landslides.
The landscape terrain around Balchik are extremely varied holding an unique charm and andappearance.
The old city is situated on an ancient landslide with amphitheater shape. Both the territory of the city and the territories west of it, occupied in much of the villa zone, are cut by deep-water vales in the north-south direction.
The plateau region covers part of the Dobrudzha plain with an altitude of 150-200 m. The relief is slightly hilly. The slope of the Dobrudzha plateau is gradually withdrawing from the coastline, with Balchik Tuzla being about a kilometer away from it, and at the valley of the river Batova – much further.
The Black Sea shelf is a broad, slightly sloping, step-down eastward underwater terrace at a depth of about 20 m, whose relief is determined by landslide processes.
Physico-geological processes on the territory of the municipality are very significant and are an important factor influencing the urbanisation of the territory. The landslides occupy a large part of the municipal territory as well as parts of the Batova river valley. Almost the whole coast of the municipality is affected by active abrasion. Wind erosion is a typical process facilitated by the deforestation and openness of the territory, the strong north and northeast winds and the flat plateau relief.
The territory of the Balchik municipality falls into two climatic zones: the first one is the Moderate Continental respectively the Eastern climatic region of the Danube Plain, and the other one is the Black Sea, respectively a climatic area of the Northern Black Sea coast.
As per the temperature characteristics of the area,itis relatively cold for the respective latitude in the winter – with an average January temperature set at around 0.8 ° C.
The summer is relatively cool – the average July temperature is 22.3 ° C. The average annual temperature is 11.8 ° C.
The annual temperature amplitude fluctuates around 19.2 ° C. This highlights the continental nature of the region’s climate which is somehow milderthanks to the sea impact.
The region is characterized as windy compared to the average rate for Bulgaria. The average annual wind speed is about 6.7 m / s. The average annual value of quiet days – less than 1 m / s is about 15.3%. The main air traffic is from north-northwest (over 40%). The north and northwestern winds are generally 23% and 18.4% respectively, while the south-east winds are the weakest – 4.4%.
The region is characterized by insufficient rainfall (424 mm per year), lower than the average for the country, distributed relatively evenly over the year. In summer and autumn fall about 26% of the annual rainfall, and in the spring – about 23%. Snow-covered days are about 15-17 (snow retention up to 0.5 months) thanks to the higher thermal level near the sea during the winter.
The close proximity of the Black sea favors evaporation and the presence of high humidity throughout the year. The maximum relative humidity is in December-January (85%), and the minimum in June, July and August – 70%. Days with relative humidity below 30% are not observed. The average annual relative humidity is about 78%.
Balchik municipality is poor on surface waters. Its hydrographic network is formed by the lower currents of the Batova and Kranevska rivers. The territory of the municipality is riddled with many drylands, which are filled with water only in heavy rains and snow melting. River peak is in the spring, and the minimum is mid-summer and autumn.
The muddy lake with medicinal mud in Balchik “Tuzla” is an important element of the hydrography and a unique resource. Its mud reserves are around 38,000 tons and are estimated to be sufficient for the future development of the recreation mud resort of the same name. Tuzla’s healing mud is of sedimentary limestone groves. Its formation favors the lack of waves in limana, the presence of clayey-peloid material, organic medium and a rich complex of soluble salts.
Teundergroundwater is the main source of drinking water for the municipality. They are part of Varna artesian basin. As per their mineralization, the waters are most often fresh and poorly mineralized.
Mineral water resources are concentrated in the coastal zone. The most important is the source in Albena. Despite their smaller scale, those in Balchik, Kranevo and Balchishka Tuzla are also essential. Mineral waters, besides being a precious natural resource, have both recreational value and additional economic significance for the municipality.
Marine waters are valuable natural resources. Compared to the waters of the world’s ocean, the Black Sea is classified as lower salty. The recreational qualities of sea water are determined by the mildcoastal climate, which also allows for the extension of the sea tourism season.
On the territory of the municipality are located the manganese deposit at the villages of Obrochishte – Tzarkva, which is considered the largest in Europe, as well as the Dobrudzha coal deposit. The manganese field streches between the Black Sea coast and the area of Hrabrovo. The deposits are at a depth of 280 to 440 m, their manganese content is high, and the stock reserves amount to 111 million tons. The Dobrudzha coal deposit covers an area of 49 sq. km and is located just north of the Black Sea between Balchik and Kavarna. Its stocks amount to 1.2 billion tons of high-quality coal.
Part of the underground wealth of the municipality are the limestone in the area of Balchik with good decorative quality.
The coastline is characterized by well-pronounced old and modern abrasive landslide and accumulation forms. The shore is terraced by landslides. The accumulated sections are represented by the beaches of Albena, Kranevo.
The coastal zone is of high economic importance (water transport, tourism, recreation, mariculture, etc.). This makes it very attractive to investors.
The sea recreactional tourism is concentrated on the coastal beach with the adjacent marine aquatory. In the southwestern part of the municipality is located the long Kranevo-Batova beach with its wooded “til”; The northeast and east coastline features a richly embossed variety of eroded rock walls and “cozy” beach terraces.
The total area of the coastal beach as per the cadastral map of the municipality is 457 279 sq.m. Not all parts of it are suitable for “beaching”.
The recreational capacity of the beaches is about 31200 people in total.
The newly built coastguard facility (Damba) between Balchik and Sunny Beach resort. Albena cuts the direct access to the beach and the adjacent aquatorial area. Thus, to a certain extent, the recreational potential of these parts of the beach is hindered.
The following protected sites and territories are defined in the municipality and fall under the Protected Areas Act:
– Balata Reserve.
– part of the Golden Sands Nature Park;
– Protected Area “Valley of bustard“;
– Protected Site “Field of plain peony”;
The preserved reserve of international importance Baltata has an area of 204.7 ha and its buffer zone is 163.4 ha. It was declared a protected site in 1961 to preserve the natural dense forest with its flora and fauna. It is located in the village of Obrochishte. The reserve is unique in the world – 16 species of plants in it and the buffer zone are of conservation value. The Red Book includes 7 species, three of which are protected and the rest are rare species. In the reserve, could be found 116 medicinal plants, 140 species of birds, of which 44 are included in the Red Book.
A small part of the Golden Sands Nature Park – (26.2 ha) falls within the territory of the municipality, namely, the territory of the village of Kranevo. Its total area is 1320.7 ha. The park was declared a protected area in 1943 for the purpose of preserving plant and animal communities and typical land formations and landscapes of high scientific and cultural value.
– The Protected Area “The valley of bustard” with an area of 3 620,0 ha covers parts of the lands of the villages of Dropla, Zmeevo and Kremena.
– The Protected Site “Field of plain peony” is situated on the territory of the village of Tsarkva and occupies an area of 46.3 ha.
A significant part of the municipality’s territory, mainly in the coastal area, is covered by protected areas of the European ecological network Natura 2000. These are:
– Balchik protected area (BG 0002061);
– part of the Golden Sands protected area (BG 0000118);
– part of the Beli Rocks (BG 0002097);
– part of the Batova Valley valley (BG 0000102);
– part of Kaliakra Complex (BG 0000573);
– part of the “Coastal Dobrudzha” protected area (BG 0000130).
– part of the Batova protected zone (BG 0002082);
– part of Kaliakra Complex (BG 0000573);
POPULATION AND DEMOGRAPHIC SITUATION IN THE MUNICIPALITY
The demographic situation in the municipality of Balchik is a result of the cumulative action of different factors and influences. While some of them follow the trends on national level inBulgaria, others are specific to the territory of the municipality and determined by its historical, cultural, socio-economic and demographic development. A key factorshaping the development of demographic processes in the municipality is provided by the sex-age, ethnic, religious and educational structures, marital and divorces, birth rate and mortality, as well as the migration processes of the population. They shape the human resources outlook in the municipality, both quantitatively and qualitatively.
The population of Balchik municipality represents 10.76% of the population of Dobrich region. The number of the population is ranked third among the municipalities in the region, after the municipality of Dobrich and Dobrich-village municipality.
From a geopraghicalpoint of view, the majority of the population is concentrated in the southeastern part of the municipality, mainly in the municipal center Balchik and Obrochishte.
Fig.4: Spatial demographic distribution of the population
There is a notable trend towards population decline in the municipality of Balchik, which is in line with the overall demographic crisis in Bulgaria. This is due to the negative website that writes essays for you natural and the negative mechanical growth of the population. On average, the population of the municipality decreases by 1.09%, which is one of the main limiting factors for the future development of the municipality. It will negatively affect the labor force and the reproduction capacity in the territory.
Table 2: Population of Balchik Municipality – towns and villages, 2004-2011.
Source: National Statistical Institute
Another important indicator in the population structure is the gender segmentation. The distribution of the population by gender depends to a large extent on the participation in the natural reproduction of the individual, the role of the family, the social status and participation in the labor market. Following the aging population trends, the gender ratio is increasingly dependent on the lowest mortality rate among men than among women over 40 years of age.
Table 3: Population in municipalities in Dobrich region (according to gender), 2011.
Source: National Statistical Institute
In the municipality of Balchik live 10.95% of the men in Dobrich region and 10.57% of the women. Unlike other municipalities in the region, Balchik has a strongbalance in the number of men and women.
In line with the general demographic trends, the number of both men and women decreased by 8.5% and 8.9% respectively. The faster rate of women’s decline is due to the higher percentage of women graduates who, after completing their education, prefer to stay in the city where they graduated or go to a bigger city with greater opportunities for realization. On the other hand, women’s unemployment and job opportunities on the territory of the municipality are generally lower. Typical of the municipality is that men predominate in the villages, while women prevail in the municipality as a whole.
The age structure of the population is essential both for the quantity and quality of the human capital in the municipality, but also for the demographic, the future development, and last but not least for the workload of the social system of the municipality. It is also crucial for the natural reproduction of the population. As a whole, the age structure of the population in the surveyed areas is regressive, with the exception of the villages of Strazhitsa and Trigortsi. The demographic dynamics are result of the specific ethnic structure of their population.
The change in the age structure of the population is crucial for the formation of a viable working population. As a result of low birth rates, the under-active population occupies the smallest share in the surveyed territories.
The municipality of Balchik is characterized by a higher percentage of working-age population compared to the average in the country and the region, while at the same time it is also lower than the average percentage of population in over-working age.
Population below, in and above working age
Below working age
In active working age
Above working age
Population below, at and above working age in the municipality of Balchik according to areas
Below working age
In active working age
Above working age
Town of Balchik
Overall, in villages there is a concentration of population in senior age, which on the one hand limits the natural reproduction of the population, on the other – has a negative effect on thelabour capacity.
The municipality of Balchik differs in terms of the ethnic structure from that of the country and the region. In percentage terms, the Bulgarian ethnic group is below the average for the country and the region, while the Turkish and Roma ethnic groups are at a higher rate.
On the territory of the municipality there are settlements where the Roma ethnic group is predominant, which means that it is necessary to pay serious attention to the measures for their effective inclusion in the social processes, ensuring adequate access to education, etc., by which create the conditions for the effective solution of the socio-economic problems caused by the marginalization of this ethnic community.
In terms of the educational structure of the population, a common trend is that the share of people with higher education in the municipality is below the average for the country and Dobrich region, and the relative share of the people with secondary education. At the same time, there is a trend towards an increase in the share of the population with primary and incomplete education. There are settlements on the territory of the municipality where the predominant population is with primary and incomplete education mainly due to the high share of the Roma ethnic group.
Fig. 8: Educational structure of the population, Source: National Statistical Institute
Table 9: Population aged 7 and above and their education level, 2011, Source: National Statistical Institute
Reproduction capacity of the population in a given territory is represented by its constant renewal or by the change of one generation with another. Its quantitative part encompasses the natural movement of the population. In turn, it is characterized by birth rate and mortality. To a large extent, the birth rate depends on the number of marriages and the number of divorces. In recent years, the emigration from the municipality has led to a significant deterioration of demographic structures leading tochallenges with the natural reproduction of the population. This is demonstrated by the trends dynamicsin the demographic processes such as fertility and mortality.
Table 10: Natural movement of the population in the municipality of Balchik, 2011 (%), Source: National Statistical Institute
The birth rate in recent years is relatively low, following overall trends in the country and in Dobrich region.
Fig. 9: Birth rate, 2011
From a demographic point of view, the relatively low fertility rate (in terms of natural reproduction) in the municipality is due to the decreased fertility of women of childbearing age and the decrease in their number. The total fertility rate (average number of children that a woman gives birth throughout her childbirth period) is around 1.1-1.4 children, which is a low value for this indicator, hence we have a narrow reproduction of the population.
The currently negative effect of the decreasing number of women of childbearing age will affect the reproduction of the population over the next decades.
The reasons for the negative prospects of the demographic situation are the negative changes in the age structure of women aged 15-49 and the decreasing absolute size and relative share of girls aged 0 to 14 who will participate in the reproduction of the population in the coming decades. The change is due to changes in socio-economic conditions and, hence, in the value system of women – values such as completion of education and employment as a priority.
Currently, one of the most alarming demographic problems in the municipality is the relative
high mortality rate – general, premature and child mortality. The main factor determining the dynamics of the overall mortality rate is the process of demographic aging, characteristic for the country and Dobrich region as well as for the municipality of Balchik. Due to aging population and worsening healthcare, there has been a sustainable trend towards maintaining relatively high mortality rates in the municipality over the past 20 years, although they are lower than those for the region and the country.
Fig. 10: Death rate, 2011
Recently, negative indexof natural growth remainedrelatively high and resulted in a reduction of the demographic potential of the municipality. This will be a limiting factor for its prospected socio-economic development.
The negative natural growth combined with the aging population greatly undermines the reproductive capacity, which is demonstrated by the rateof the basic demographic indicators. Improving the socio-economic situation in the municipality is one of the ways to reduce the negative value of natural growth.
Fig. 11: Rate of natural population growth, 2011
The indicators for the mechanical population growth show the trend of increasing external migration caused by the poor economic environment and the high unemployment rate. The direction of the migration flowis from the villages to the municipal and regional center (Dobrich) and to the big cities in the region, the capital or abroad.
Table 11: Migration of the population, 2003-2011, Source: National Statistical Institute
The main reasons for the emigration of the population of Balchik municipality are the higher employment opportunities and the better urban infrastructure in the host cities.
Potential emigrants in the municipality are aged 20-35, and 75% of potential emigrants have secondary and tertiary education, ie. leaving young and educated people in which the state has invested and who are more suitable to the demands of the market economy.
The emigration of young and highly educated people has and will have serious economic and social consequences for the future development of the municipality. Emigration also has a strong negative effect on the reproduction of the population, as the “export” of women of childbearing age reduces the level of potential future birth rate not only for the next 10-15 years but also for a much longer period of time – 40-50 years. The stimulus to emigration in recent years have been linked to employment, higher incomes, higher emigrants’ living standards, and a better urban environment. This motivation is fostered by the pursuit of educational and professional realization.
If the current demographic trends persist, the population of Balchik Municipality will continue to decline. It is expected that by 2020 it will decreaseapproximately by further 600 people.
Table 12: Population growth of Balchik municipality
An important economic growth indicator is the average unemployment rate. In 2017 the unemployment rate in the Municipality of Balchik is 7.4%. There is also a decrease in the share of the long-term unemployed (unemployed over one year) in the municipality of Balchik. This shows that the Municipality of Balchik holdsrelativelypositive positions in terms of this indicator compared toother municipalities in Dobrich and in the country.
The economically active persons in the municipality of Balchik are 11 015 people. The main conclusion in the study of structural unemployment in Balchik municipality is that the share of unemployed women (59%), people without qualification and profession (63%) and people with basic, primary and lower education is about 53% .
The age structure of unemployment in Balchik Municipality shows that the unemployed persons aged 29 years and under in Balchik Municipality account for 17.1% of the total number of registered unemployed. In the past year, their share has fallen significantly over the previous one.
In 2017. in the municipality of Balchik the unemployed persons without qualification and profession occupya very large share – about 63%, and of the unemployed – about 6%.
Balchik Municipality leverages its resources more efficiently for the development of the economy and for job creation compared to other municipalities in Dobrich and in Bulgaria.
Analysis of employment structure by economic sector shows that over three-quarters of the employees in the municipality work in the private sector (77%) and less than a quarter in the public sector (about 23%). In Balchik municipality, the highest share of employees is in the service sector (69%), the industrial sector (25%) and the agricultural sector (6%). This is explained by the traditions and strong development of tourism in the municipality. The share of employees in the hospitality and restaurant sector is the highest – (31.8%). The share of the employed in the rest of the economic sectors is relatively smaller, with leading positions in the manufacturing industry (11.6%), construction (8.9%), trade, repair and maintenance of motor vehicles and motorcycles (8, 3%) etc.
The significance and the number (over 300) of cultural monuments available in the municipality ranks it at one of the first places in the country. The cultural heritage is essential for the development of tourism and an excellent complement to balneotherapy and recreation.
According to information from the Technical Terms for elaboration of the Master Plan of the Municipality of Balchik andanalytical part:
Cultural monuments in the boundaries of the settlements
The majority of the cultural and historical monuments in the municipality that fall under the Law for the monuments of culture and museums, is concentrated in the municipal center – Balchik.
According to their spatial structure and territorial scope, they are:
– group monuments of culture – two complexes: the architectural and park complex “The Palace” (including 15 singlecultural monuments) and a complex on the territory of a former residence of the Bulgarian Communist Party (including 1 single cultural monument);
– single monuments of culture – 109 + 16 within the complex + 3 archaeological sites.
The rich and diverse culture and historical monumentsarewell preserved on the territory of Balchik. As per specificity, significance and territorial location, the cultural and historical heritagesites could be grouped as follows:
Architectural and Park Complex “The Palace”: a monument with outstanding cultural and historical value, high attractiveness and established traditions in terms of socialization. Its attractiveness for the tourists’ (cognitive) visits is further enhanced by the Botanical Garden, the largest and richest in the Balkans, with over 3000 rare and exotic species. The monument is located in close proximity and convenient location west of the actual city. On the territory of the Palace there are traditionally cultural events, festivals, pleiners, etc., which enriches the its socialization capacity.
Urban architectural heritage. It covers the predominant number of single cultural monuments forming the historical urban development base. Its uniqueness and special attractiveness is also due to the specific morphology of the terrain, which determined the street-quadrant structure and the urbanisation structure. Some of the sites have a high degree of socialization i.e. cultural monuments, temples, commercial service, etc. Important accent in the urban environment are the public fountains. Characteristic structures with the potential for adaptation for proper modern use are the mazes.
Archaeological heritage. It represents an important part of the material legacy of Balchik and, together with the other monuments from Antiquity and the Middle Ages on the territory of the municipality – part of the concentration of significant archaeological heritage of scientific and cultural value characterizing the area of the northern Black Sea coast.
In 2007, the remains of the temple of Kibela – the best preserved Hellenistic temple in Bulgaria and the only temple of the mother goddess known to date in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula, were discovered in the city. The concentration of archaeological heritage in and around the municipal center includes Late Roman and Medieval settlements in the Ginny Bair (36 acres), as well as the Malé tepe (Ancient Settlement) mound – both adjacent to the city, declared to be of “local significance“. Near the airport and in the district + Levski “necropolises from the period VIII-XI c.
Medieval fortress “Horizont” – a late antiquity and medieval fortress in Balchik – a cultural heritage monument from “national significance” category.
Architectural and building cultural monuments are registered in the villages of Bobovets (2 residential buildings), Dropla (one residential building), Zmeevo (1 – the church), Kranevo (6 residential buildings), Lyahovo (2 units) – a mosque and a residential building), Obrochishte (15 residential buildings), Rogachevo (9 residential buildings), Sokolovo (3, including the building of the town hall, Kalevo – old well and one residential building), Hrabrovo (3 residential buildings), Tsarkva (2 residential buildings).
In the village of Dropla there is an ancient settlement – archaeological cultural site, declared with “local significance“. The church “St. Dimitar “in the village of Gurkovo is declared an architectural and building monument of culture of” local significance “. The church “St. Virgin Mary “in the village of Obrochishte has been declared architectural and artistic culture monument.
Particularly interesting are the remains of a Muslim monastery “Teke Akayazel”, currently within the boundaries of the village of Obrochishte, in a well maintained park environment. The monument includes two buildings – a turquoise (mausoleum) and an Ieret (magician), among which the tomb of the Muslim saint Ak Yazali Baba. Because of the inscriptions with Oriental and Baroque ornaments, the site was declared as a “local significance” (1972).
Cultural monuments outside the settlements
In the territory outside the settlements there are preserved and placed under legal protection mainly archaeological sites. In addition to the two settlements on the territory of Balchik, architectural and building monuments from Antiquity and the Middle Ages of “local significance” have been discovered in the following settlements:
– Kranevo – a late antique fortress on the banks of the Kranevska river (declared 1976);
– Obrochishte – late antique fortress 1.5 km north (declared 1967);
– Hrabrovo – Ancient Settlement 5.5. km south (declared 1967);
– Rogachevo – ancient necropolis 1 km north (declared 1967);
– Tombstone mounds exist in the lands of Zmeevo (2) and Sokolovo (6).
Botanical garden „The Place“
„The Tekke“ Bulgarian Revival School
Movable cultural monuments are described in item 3 Social sphere, Culture
The cultural and historical heritage represents one of the most invaluable resources of the Municipality of Balchik. They are important both for its socio-economic development and as an element of the physical environment.
The historically formed structures in the central part of Balchik, combined with the specific natural geographic features, determine the exclusive charm and identity of the city as a whole.
According to the size of the individual settlements, the concentration of cultural monuments in them is relatively low. The historical structures (except in the town of Balchik itself) do not have the significance of the contemporary urban factors themselves. Nevertheless, they are subject to preservation not only in the sense of the normative provisions, but also as key elements of the identity of the municipality, whose preservation is among the important conditions for optimal development of the municipal territory as a tourist destination with a diverse and attractive resources.
Part of the architectural and cultural monuments are in poor or bad physical condition. Structures are largely destroyed, mainly due to failure to perform the necessary protective and conservation measures, as well as due to urban construction.
The potential of the archaeological heritage as a subject of cultural tourism as well as an element of an attractive recreational environment is significant but not fully realized. The degree of exploration and socialization of the municipal archaeological heritage is currently unsatisfactory.
The infrastructure is insufficient for the transformation of the monuments into sites of interest – tourist information infrastructures, development, conditions for transport and pedestrian access, etc.
STAT OF THE LOCAL ECONOMY
The economic situation of Balchik municipality is a consequence of the influence of external (outside the municipality) and internal (within the municipality) factors. Internal factors that have a significant impact on the economic development of the municipality are the resource potential and the actions of the economic entities located on its territory (private and public organizations and institutions that offer the benefits of local residents and visitors from other regions) the availability of consumer demand for goods and services offered on the territory of the municipality.
The natural resources in the municipality of Balchik are extremely favorable for the development of agriculture. Convenient climate and soils are prerequisites for growing a range of crops.
In the municipalitythere is available a detailed report for the territory of Balchik Municipality.
The data in the table revelas that the vast majority of the municipal territory is occupied by agricultural land – 384938,7 ha or 73,6%. Thisis a key prerequisite for the development of the agricultural industry. The development of a balanced agricultural sector, integrated with the food industry and tourism, is among the priorities of the Municipality of Balchik.
Table 26: Territory of Balchik Municipality in 2009
Source: Technical assignment for elaboration of a general development plan of Balchik municipality
The table below presents the structure of the agricultural lands of Balchik municipality in 2009. A significant part (94% or 361208,5 dca) of these territories is occupied by fields. The share of other areas – pastures, meadows (4%) and permanent crops (2%) – is significantly smaller.
Table 27: structure of the agricultural lands of Balchik municipalityin 2009
The majority of the agricultural land is occupied by wheat, sunflower and corn, followed by beans. The yields of fruit, vine and vegetables are significantly reduced. The crop yields are of relatively high quality. The cooperatives are predominant, followed by land tenants, and a minimal part of the economic entities that farm land are private owners.
The main reasons for the insufficient development of the plant production are the high cost of production and respectively the low yield and the potential risk of losses.
The main areas of the livestock breeding that are being developed in the municipality are cattle breeding, sheep breeding and pig production. Less often, rabbits, goats, birds, bees, etc. are grown.
Livestock is less developed.
The sea resources are not leveraged in an efficient way. (fishing, mussels, etc.).
In could be concluded that agriculture in the municipality is not well diversified and the capacity of stock-breeding is not used to a satisfactory extent.
Over the last few years, the development of the industry sector in Balchik Municipality is considerably lagging behind. About a quarter of the employees in the municipality work in this sector. The share of sales and investment in the industry is also insufficient. The reasons for this are that investors’ attention is focused mainly on tourism. In addition, Balchik municipality does not have enough resources for the development of the industrial sector.
The industrial sector in the municipality is represented by the mining industry, which includes the manganese mine in the village of Tsarkva and limestone quarries, and the processing industry, to which the food and textile industry belongs, the metalworking and the electrical industry are less developed.
The further development of the industry in Balchik municipality is necessary due to the need for diversification and sustainable economic growth.
Tourism is a priority sector for Balchik Municipality. The municipality has plenty of resources and has traditions in the development of sea tourism. The municipality of Balchik borders the Black Sea. Typical of it are the long beaches. The total area of the coastline within the municipality is 45 7279 sq.m. The area of the guarded beaches is 347 894 sq.m.The recreational capacity of the beaches is 31,200 people.
Significant financial resources are dedicated to the development of tourism. Some of the most serious issues that limit tourism development are landslide processes as well as seasonality factor.
The municipality has over 310 accommodation facilities: hotel resorts, family hotels, guest houses, private rooms and the total number of beds in them is about 24 000.
About two-thirds of the residents in Balchik are foreigners and about one third – Bulgarians. Romanians account for 21% of the overnights in the municipality, followed by Russians (14%), Germans (9%), Poles (4%), Ukrainians (3%), Norwegians (3%), etc.
The realized overnight stays by foreigners are slightly more than three quarters of the total number of nights spent in the municipality (77%), while the remaining quarter of the nights were realized by Bulgarians (23%). The highest number of nights are spent by the Russians (22% of the total number of nights spent in the municipality), followed by the Romanians (15%), the Germans (13%), the Poles (5%), the Ukrainians (3% ) etc.
The highest number of nights has been reported in Albena resort (80%), followed by Kranevo and Balchik.
The coastal zone of Balchik
Albena ResortKranevo village
Accommodation in Balchik municipality
Type of tourist accomodations
Tourist and holiday villages
In total, the number of tourists accommodated in Balchik Municipality was 344,777 in 2016 and the number of overnight stays reached 1,801,243, an average of 6.45 nights per person, which is much higher than the average for the country that is set at 2.4.
The tourist flow in 2016 grew by 14.5% from previous year and the overnight stays increased by 11%.The structure of the tourist flow consisted of two thirds foreign tourists and one third Bulgarian.
– The largest share of tourists and nights in the Municipality of Balchik (93.8%) is generated by tourists from 16 countries. Among these tourists the average number of tourists is over 3000 and the number of overnight stays is over 20 000.
– The three largest groups of foreign tourists were: Romanian visitors – just over a quarter of all (27%), Germans (11%) and Russians (6%).
The foreign tourist groups that demonstrated most notable growth in the period 2015-2016 in Balchik municipality are the Germans, Poles, Ukrainians and Czechs. There is also an increase in English, French tourists.
The main tourist infrastructure is concentrated in the Albena, Kranevo, Balchik and the villa zone, as well as in the villages of Obrochishte, Rogachevo and Gurkovo.
Balchik is a small but very romantic beautiful coastal town. With its white rocks and beautiful scenery, “the pearl” of the Bulgarian Black Sea coast is a favorite place for recreation and tourism by artists and culture, scientists and foreign tourists. Its narrow streets and scenic landscapes, turn the city into a living symbol of a peaceful world. The place is best known for its exotic Botanical Garden – the largest on the Balkans. Flowers and trees from the Mediterranean islands, the Pacific Ocean, the Black Sea, South Asia and America are a true delight for the visitor. The garden accomodates around 3000 species of plants (over 250 of which are cacti), arranged between waterfalls, small river streams and decorative canals.
The nature of Balchik is very well preserved, the beaches are small and situated all over the city. In recent years several modern buildings and hotels have been built in the coastal area and the old ones have been renovated.
Balchik offers various opportunities for recreation and water sports, clubs, bars and small restaurants.
The yacht harbor is naturally protected by the strong winds prevailing in the winter season, the northern quarter winds because of its location under the high bank of the Dobroudja plateau. This makes it the most visited marina on the Northern Black Sea coast and the only one that offers year-round navigation and watering, including during the winter season. The sea bottom is clay and comfortable for anchoring and has a sufficient natural depth for stowing keel yachts. The yacht port of Balchik gives the possibility of mooring 60 yachts. Balchik hosts international regattas which attract many connoisseurs and lovers of yachts.
The transport infrastructure, which provides additional attractiveness for the development of tourism, can be attributed to the former military airport, which also has civilian functions – entertainment services;
Holiday Village “Albena” has over 40 hotel complexes, offering opportunities for business, congress and festival tourism. There is a wide range of sports facilities, including 8 football pitches, 17 tennis courts (4 indoor), 25 mineral water pools (4 indoor), 9 beach volleyball courts, a modern horse base, a modern multipurpose sports hall. 11 sports, a bowling alley, etc .;
In the village of Kranevo there are a large number of hotels, SPA-center, fitness halls, restaurants, volleyball and basketball playgrounds and a large ice rink.
Nearby Balchik there are the two popular golf resorts with 18 holes – Light House Golf Club and Black Sea Rama. Their construction is the largest investment in the municipality in recent years. Designed by world-renowned golfers Ian Wozman and Gary Player, both complexes welcome tourists from around the world and offer high-level service. The most recent resorts in the region of Balchik offer opportunities not only for golf tournaments but also for recreation in the nature.
There are good conditions for recreational and wellness tourism in the mud and sea resort “Balchik Tuzla” and in the “Albena” Resort Complex. The resort area Tuzlata is situated 4 km east of the town of Balchik, located just off the beach. It is well known for its mud and balneal (hydrothermal) resort center, and is also recognized for its comfortable bathing and swimming coastal sea strip.
There is a mud-balneotherapy center in the resort, which includes: mud treatments (partial and full mud applications, mud baths and swabs) and hydrothermal and sea baths; There is also an open mud bathing room (male and female) for mud treatments by sunbathing the body with mud at sun exposure (the so-called “Egyptian method”).
Pedestrian and educational tourism on the basis of educational routes and opportunities for training in ecological environment are a prerequisite for the development of ecotourism, which could also include underwater tourism (archeological-historical and “flora-fauna funistic”), botanical etc.
Baltata Nature Reserve is one of the 35 reserves in Bulgaria. Baltata was declared a reserve on July 3, 1962 following a recommendation by the British naturalists Guy Manford and Eric Hosking who conducted an expedition along with Bulgarian scientists in 1961 on the lower reaches of the Batova River. Today it is a protected reserve and provides a unique biodiversity. Itd attracts tourists thanks to large variety of environmentally friendly forms of ecotourism. The implementation and fulfillment of quality strandards contribute to the choice of destination, form a high standard of tourism services, cultivate environmental engagement, awareness, good service and safety. Biodiversity conservation, controlled access, balanced socialization and exposure to protected areas are possible through built eco-paths, viewpoints, bird watching towers.
Rural tourism is gaining popularity amongst eco and adventure tourism fans as well as among the traditional guests of the Balchik region. The villages of Obrochishte, Sokolovo, Rogachevo, Bezvoditsa offer a unique experience with a genuine atmosphere of the old country houses and yards, the authentic folklore and the traditional hospitality of Dobrudzha.
Ethnographic complex “Sokolovo” preserves the Bulgarian tradition and demonstrates to the tourists 15 unique authentic crafts.
For more than ten years Balchik State Wildlife Plant has been organizing and conducting hunting tourism for: red deer, deer, wild boar, roe deer, rabbit, pheasant, quail, ducks and geese. For hunters, there are a hunting lodge, hunting shelter, experienced hunting guides, hunting dogs and specialized hunting transport. The presence of both plain and semi-mountainous terrain determines the rich variety of wildlife.
To stimulate future growth and sustainable development of the territory it is vital to preserve and protect the natural environment;
– The protected areas (“Baltata” reserve, part of Golden Sands Nature Park), the forest parks, the parksin the resorts and the relief areas in the mainland are attcative places for eco- and photo-tourism. These landscapes make the area attractive for the development of a horse (horse-riding – in the village of Strazhitsa, Albena resort), biking and others. Thus, apart from their science and educational value, they are also a valuable resource for active recreational tourism;
– The mineral water isanother resourcethat benefits the eco tourism. The opportunity of enriching the main tourist product with balneotherapy is well utilized in the resort. “Albena”;
– Hunting tourism is another form with somehow authonomous development. The proper conditions are provided by the Balchik State Wildlife Plant, which protects a total of 132,000 ha of forest and land fund within six municipalities, out of which a total of 8,000 ha of state hunting areas;
– The rich cultural and historical heritage of the municipality supports the development of cultural and educational tourism. The Ethnographic complex “Sokolovo” further contributes to its development. There are presented local traditions and craftsas well as Bulgarian folklore;
– The cultural calendar of the municipality is characterized by richness and diversity. Some of the events became traditional. Local gatherings are other forms of popularizing local traditions of tourist interest;
– The traditional lifestyle and livelihood of the population of the villages of Obrochishte, Sokolovo, Rogachevo, Bezvoditsa, Gurkovo and others. hold potential for the development of rural tourism;
– Tourist information centers operate in Balchik, Albena and Kranevo;
Due to the dynamic development of the tourism industry over the last two decades considerable funds have been invested in the construction of buildings, repairs and construction works to develop accommodation, shelter, catering and additional services aimed at visitors from other regions.
Based on the current analysis it can be concluded that in recent years in Balchik Municipality, tourism has become a major area of development. Companies in the tourism industry, and in particular the hotel and restaurant sector, reported the highest values in terms of indicators such as realized sales revenue, number of employees and investment.
Under EU Directives, economic growth measures should ensure sustainable development. Sustainable development requires the achievement of results while preserving resources for present and future generations. It is necessary to simultaneously protect the rights and interests of consumers and enterprises – producers and suppliers, local residents and tourists. This means finding a balance that guarantees both economic, social and environmental sustainability. In particular, sustainable development requires the creation of income for businesses and jobs for the local population, while preserving the natural and cultural resources of the community and the environment, and ensuring their conservation and development for present and future generations, enhancing the quality of life of local residents and the wellbeing of visitors to the regions.
Traditions and available resources of the municipality require that tourism continues to be developed as the main priority sector in the future. In line with the principles of sustainable growth, tourism development should ensure revenue and jobs in the municipality, while creating pleasant experiences for tourists as well as protecting the environment and cultural heritage. In the municipality there is sufficient shelter and accommodation capacity. The focus should be on maintaining and improving their quality, service, variety of services, hygiene and cleanliness, etc.
The further development of tourism should focus on addressing the main problems in this area, namely overcoming seasonality and increasing the capacity of accommodation and shelter in the municipality. Better use of bed capacity is associated with attracting more tourists and mainly extending the season. Furthermore, regular surveys of potential tourism markets should be carried out. Attractingtouristsbeyound the summer season can be achieved as the main tourism product of the municipality – the sea holiday tourism – is diversified with additional tourist services so as to ensure the development of specialized forms of tourism. Congress tourism is often pointed out as an alternative to mass tourism that is most effective in attracting tourists out of the season. Balchik Municipality has a well-developed base for development of sports tourism, as well as resources for the development of spa tourism, cultural tourism ecotourism, hunting tourism, rural tourism, etc.
Development of the social sphere and human resources
On the territory of the municipality there are three hospitals with a total number of 242 beds: the “Balchik” Hospital has 92 beds, the State Psychiatric Hospital is with 90 beds, a Specialized Hospital for Rehabilitation – the Tuzla with 60 beds.
In the registered health offices in kindergartens and schools in Balchik municipality, medical specialists work on National Programs for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention and provide first-aid medicine to children and students. Periodical lectures are delivered by healthcare professionals on healthy lifestyle and nutrition. In the prevention of smoking and the use of alcohol and narcotic substances, constant information campaigns are held, which include the distribution of leaflets, brochures and films.
There are five medical centers, medical centers for outpatient care, one in Balchik – “Medical Center” Balchik, two in Albena and two in the village of Kranevo. In Balchik there is a branch of Emergency Medical Center – Dobrich, a medical-diagnostic and medical-technical laboratory and a microbiological laboratory. 17 practices for outpatient medical care and 11 practices for dental medicine have been revealed.
The overall view is that the healthcare system in Balchik municipality is relatively well organized, materially and staffed. A serious problem remains the timely provision of health care in remote villages.
The Strategy for the Development of Social Services in the Municipality of Balchik (2016 – 2020) was developed in implementation of Art. 19 of the Social Assistance Act and Art. 36b of the Regulations on the Application of the Social Assistance Act. Planning at the municipal level is in line with the approved Regional Strategy for Development of Social Services in Dobrich District 2016 – 2020 and was carried out on the basis of Analysis of the needs for social services, prepared with the direct participation of all stakeholders – Balchik Municipality, Directorate “Social Assistance” , service providers, civil organizations, state institutions, representatives of target communities and risk groups. The analysis of the needs for social services in the municipality of Balchik was adopted by the Municipal Council – Balchik with Decision No. 69 on Protocol No. 7 of 25.02.2016. It sets out specific conclusions and recommendations for the development of social services in the municipality of Balchik, based on analysis of groups at risk on the territory of the municipality, assessment of existing social services and assessment of resources for the development of social services.
The priority directions are grouped in two – those concerning the content of social services and the way of functioning and implementation of services and measures for social inclusion:
Priority axis 1. “Development of community services for child and child prevention, families at risk with the common goal of preventing risks leading to social exclusion of children and individuals and supporting families and communities by extending the network of social services”.
Priority axis 2. “Development of social services in the community for social inclusion of vulnerable disadvantaged groups” – with a common goal – creation of new social services in the community and improvement of the quality of care in the existing ones.
Priority axis 3. “Care for the elderly for a better and worthy life” – with a common goal – Improving the quality of life of the elderly in the Municipality of Balchik through the development of a community service network.
Priority axis 4. “Human resources development” with a common goal – increasing the quality of care for people using social services in the community. Achieving the long-term and specific objectives set within the five years will create the conditions for a sustainable improvement in the quality of life and living standards of at-risk and disadvantaged communities. The qualitative change in the situation will be measured by a system of qualitative and quantitative indicators for the progress in solving the identified problems and the modernization of the system of social services in Balchik municipality.
The municipal social services strategy is implemented at the municipal level with the joint efforts of all stakeholders in line with their competencies, the identified needs of the groups at risk planned activities to meet them. The municipal councils and administrations are responsible for the overall implementation of the municipal strategy for the development of social services on their territory.
In the Analysis of the Situation in Balchik Municipality are defined two main parameters – “income” and “age”, which in combination with other factors – education, difficult access to social services, isolation of the populated place etc. create the risks of social exclusion of individuals.
As a result of the analysis of the risk factors, several key risk groups are identified, which are subject to the impact of the Municipal Strategy for Development of Social Services. Target groups are children, people with disabilities, old people (elderly people in institutions and lonely old people) and specific communities and disadvantaged groups (minors and young parents, people with basic and lower education, the unemployed and ethnic communities in disadvantaged position).
Social Services Available on the Territory of Balchik Municipality:
There are no specialized institutions for children on the territory of Balchik Municipality, which in turn is a prerequisite for facilitation of the deinstitutionalization process.
The municipality has a “Seasonal home for the elderly” in a reconstruction, located in Balchik, in the “Sborno pole”, on public property.
Social services in the community
The municipality directly manages and applies for social projects and services provided in a family environment or in an environment close to the family. In a way, the services are an alternative to accommodating children and adults in an institution.
The service was developed as a municipal activity. The beneficiries of the service are 240 persons. It is carried out on the whole territory of Balchik municipality.
Services provided under projects and programs
Personal Assistant, Home Assistant, and Social Services
assistant “are offered by the administration of the municipality
Balchik. These services are preferred as they are the closest to
the family environment of the beneficiaries
Communal dining area
During the winter period (1 November – 31 May), the social service is provided to 80 people
The most developed community service for the elderly is the Domestic Social Patronage, which operates in Balchik as well as in other settlements.
In the Municipality of Balchik, services for children and persons with disabilities are limited to the programs of home assistant, personal and social assistant, which can not cover all the needy.
The environment for people with disabilities is accessible, ramps for disabled people have been built in schools, in the administrative building of the Balchik municipal administration, and in the healthcare establishments.
Recommendations outlined in the Municipal Strategy for the Development of Social Servicesin the Municipality of Balchik: The beneficiaries of social support have different problems, which are solved in the following sectors: health, education, housing policy, employment, as a result of which it is necessary to establish mechanisms of cross-sectoral partnership between the institutions to use their resources in support of families in overcoming poverty and social exclusion.
Priority to develop prevention measures and services to support families with children at risk due to poverty, unemployment, poor living conditions of families. Improving the quality of life of families with children with permanent disabilities dependent on permanent care is possible by providing an alternative choice for active participation in the real labor market.
Work on the level of kindergarten and school as a preventive measure.
The main objective of improving the quality of life of people with disabilities, lonely people and the elderly is to create conditions for the effective exercise of their right of independence, including by exercising the right to work and reducing the risk of institutional dependence.
The National and Operational Programs for Home Assistant, Social Assistant and Personal Assistant services meet all these needs, but due to their limited capacities do not cover all needy people, the large gap between ending a program and starting next leaves users service in an extremely difficult situation.
The strategy also defines specific recommendations for the development of services for children and families with children at risk, for adults and people with disabilities, elderly people, drug addicts.
Pre-primary education (according to NSI data for 2010)
On the territory of the municipality of Balchik there are 13 kindergartens functioning as follows: in Balchik two Kindergartens (Kindergarten № 1 “Zdravets” and Kindergarten №3 “Chaika”) and Kindergarten № 2 “Banner of Peace” work in the village of Bezvoditsa Kindergarten “Prolet”, in the village of Strazhitsa “Radost” kindergarten, in the village of Sokolovo “Zvezditza” kindergarten, in the village of Senokos “Mir” kindergarten, in the village of Kranevo Kindergarten “Veselite Delphincheta”, in the village of Dropla Kindergarten “Dobrudzhanche” , in Obrochishte village “First June”, Kindergarten in the village of Gurkovo, Pryapa village and Lyahovo village.
In Balchik since 1995 there is a Center for Personal Development – Municipal Children’s Complex.
There are 7 educational institutions in the municipality of Balchik, of which 6 are general education
schools (Secondary School “Hristo Smirnenski” in the village of Obrochishte, Secondary School “Hristo Botev” in the town of Balchik, “George Rakovski”Primary School in the village of Senokos, V. Levski Primary School in the village of Sokolovo, “Antim I” in the town of Balchik,”St. Cyril and Methodius”Primary School in Balchik), 1 special school (Acad. T. Samudumov in the village of Kranevo).
Specialized transport is provided for children from settlements without schools.
The buildings and equipment are in good condition and provide a normal learning process. Schools and kindergartens have been largely repaired, and equipment and furnishings have been completely refurbished.
As part ofthe Project “Global Libraries – Bulgaria” by the Ministry of Culture, six culture houseshave been equipped: “Paisii Hilendarski-1870” in Balchik, Prosveta-1900 in Sokolovo village, Prosveta-1901 Obrochishte village, Bacho Kiro-1939 “in Kranevo,” Vasil Levski-1959 ” town of Balchik,” Svoboda-1897 ” in the village of Gurkovo.
The Kindergartens in the municipality Balchik have been completely renovated
The Culture House (Chitalishte) network is the basis for the cultural infrastructure in the municipality. In Balchik there are 2 Culture houses (Paisii Hilendarski and Vassil Levski) with a total of 750 seats in their viewing halls. There have been established two folklore ensembles since 1959: Balik Folk Dance Ensemble and Women’s Folk Choir “Dobrudzhanki” for authentic folklore.
Culture houses are also located in the villages of Strazhitsa, Gurkovo, Dropla, Zmeevo, Senokos, Sokolovo, Obrochishte and unfinished cultural house in Kranevo without a viewing room. These culture houses have a total of 2180 seats, which provide 96.9 seats per 1000 people, which is slightly lower than the average for the country. The majority of rural culture houses need renovation, their libraries are with an outdated book fund. In some of the culture houses in the villages there are formed groups for authentic folklore. In the villages of Bezvoditsa, Dabrava, Tsarichino the culture houses do not function. Numerous activities have been developed only by the culture house in Balchik.
The main part of the cultural life of the municipality is concentrated in the city. Both choral, theatrical and dance groups, children’s schools, folk vocals and instrumental ensembles have been created. The town of Balchik has a National History Museum, Ethnographic Museum, Renaissance Complex, Art Gallery, etc.
The rich collection of the Historical Museum traces chronologically the history of Balchik from its origin in the 6th century BC. to the liberation of the city from the Romanian occupation in 1940. In the renovated halls of the Balchik Museum there are exhibited all the artifacts found in the temple of Kibela, as well as the earliest Proto-Bulgarian necropolis, and the period of the 12th-14th centuries with the graphite ceramics.
The Ethnographic Museum is housed in a beautiful restored house of a Balkan merchant and preserves the coziness of a rustic and urban-style guest rooms from the end of the 19th century. On two floors, through authentic objects, are shown: crafts – carriage, blacksmithing, carpentry; livelihoods and lifestyle of the citizents of Balchik (work and holiday suits, fishing nets, looms and harvesting tools, ornaments), etc.
Among the culture institutions preserving and presenting the cultural and artistic heritage of Balchikis the Art Gallery. It has over 40 years of history. It is located in a building from the beginning of the last century. The Gallery Fund includes works of painting, sculpture and graphics from the beginning of the 20th century to the present day. In addition to a permanent exhibition, the gallery is a place for conducting recitals and concerts and a center for international plenaries and festivals.
The Renaissance complex includes Mutual School and the church “St. Nicholas “. Inside the school building there is an interior of classroom and teacher rooms from the middle of the nineteenth century. Interesting are the original samples of cool and firearms and other exhibits from the Renaissance. Patron of the temple “St. Nicholas” is the protector of sailors and fishermen. The church was built in the middle of the nineteenth century, its interior was made by Tryavna masters. It has a permanent exhibition “Revival icons from Dobrudja region”.
It was built in the 16th century. The Dervish Monastery (Teketo) is located in the village of Obrochishte on the way to Albena. It is revered as a sanctuary by both Muslims and Christians. The kazalbash believed that there was buried the saint Ak Jazle Baba, and the Christians – St. Atanas.
The Art Gallery
The Art Gallery
Currently, the local traditions and crafts, as well as Bulgarian folklore, are presented to a wide audience in the Ethnographic complex “Sokolovo”. The complex has been established in 1997.
The cultural calendar of the Municipality is very rich and diverse. Festival are also dedicated to the demonstration and promotion of cultural heritage and contemporary culture. Some of the events have established themselves as traditional. Among them are “Balchik Classic Days”, International Choral Festival “Black Sea Sounds,” National Folklore Festival “Sea of Rhythms” Festival of amateur groups “St Laurent” International Forum “Bulgarian Heritage” festival of young art “VIA PONTICA – Balchik 2018 “, International Zumba Festival, International Festival of Slavic Wreath in Kranevo, International Children’s Art Contest” Smiles of the Sea “, International Children’s Festival of Arts” Trixie”, International Short Film Festival, Cop Albena Festival, Local Councils are other forms of popularizing the local traditions of tourist interest.
On 17 September 2012 Balchik was awarded the “Festival City of the Balkans” award. The prize is given by the Balkan Alliance of Hotel Associations and is for the rich cultural poster of the Municipality of Balchik.
Youth activity and sport
There are 11 sports clubs, 1 professional and 5 amateur soccer clubs active in Balchik municipality. Sports facilities for mass sports include sports grounds and gymnasiums in schools, the artificial playground, stadiums and sports facilities in the settlements outside Balchik, several private sports halls. The professional sports facilities include: the new base of “Chernomoretz” Stadium in Balchik, the stadiums in the village of Obrochishte, the stadiums and sports facilities in Albena Resort, a new pitching tower and athletics field. Athletes in clubs aged 15-29 are over 500.
Sports hall in school
Sea Club Balchik
Sports athletics club
Infrastructural development, connectivity and accessibility of the territory
Road and street network (+ bicycle lanes, parking, public transport, traffic organization)
According to information from the Technical Terms for elaboration of the Master Plan of the Balchik municipality and analytical part:
The external connections of the municipality are provided by the roads from the republic road network.
The first-class road I-9 (E 87) is the main service road for the municipality. It serves the coastal area: Romania (Durankulak) – Balchik – Varna – Burgas – Malko Tarnovo – Turkey. It is located in the southern part of the municipality, in parallel to the coast line, and mainly serves the tourist flows along the coast and the direct connections with the regional center of Varna. The road is in a relatively good condition.
Second-class road network is represented by:
– ІІ -27 Balchik – Sokolovo – Senokos – Dobrich – Novi Pazar and hence connection with Hemus motorway and first-class road I-2 Rousse – Varna. This time it connects the municipality with the interior of the country in the northwest and west direction.
The two second-class roads provide the road links for land transfer of cargoes from the ports of Rousse and Silistra to the port of Balchik and vice versa.
Third-class road III-902 Obrochishte – Kichevo – resort “St. Konstantin and Elena “- Varna passes parallel to the first-class road I-9 and is successfully used for taking over the freight and transit traffic, especially in the summer months. The pre-categorized road III-9002 Tsarichino-Dropla – General Toshevo serves the north-western part of the municipality.
The total length of the national road network in the municipality of Balchik is 91.4 km, the majority of it is in good condition. Considering the good spatial organization and density (174.6 km / 1000 km2), the conclusion is that the construction of the republic road network in the municipality is good.
The municipal road network includes 108 km of former four-class roads and 28 km of local road network serving mainly the villa areas. The density of the municipal network route is higher than the average for the district and the country. Out of a total of 22 settlements, 15 are served by municipal roads, built mainly with asphalt pavement.
In general, the road network in the municipality is well developed and in a relatively good condition.
High-class roads are are up to the standard, with third-class roads having a bandwidth reserve. The access to the regional center as well as to the regional center of Varna is good, especially from the coastal part of the municipality, which is served by the first-class road.
The rehabilitation and development of municipal roads and streets in Balchik have been consducted as part of numerous projects.
Water transport infrastructure
Port of Balchik is part of the port complex Varna. It has been built and has been operating since 1969. It is ranked third in size among the ports along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. It has 165 m piers equipped with two 5-ton gantry cranes. The port can accommodate up to 2 small ships (5000-6000 points). Approximately 2000 sq.m. open warehouse areas, border checkpoint and internal road.
Cargo from and to the port is delivered to the port by road. The profiling is only for cargo, and is only for export.
The sea passenger service is served by the Balchik Marine Station. It is done with hydro-buses to the resort. “Golden Sands” and Sunny Beach resort. “St. Konstantin and Elena “to Varna, from where the connection with the Southern Black Sea coast is realized. The main passenger-flow is tourist and has decreased significantly.
In 1983 in the town of Balchik has been built a yacht-fishing port with capacity for 70 yachts.
East of the city of Balchik there is a special purpose airport. The track is north-south direction and the flights take place over the sea.
The airport in Balchik was built as civilian in 1935, when South Dobrudja was within the borders of Romania. In 1941. the airport became military and was used by the Bulgarian and German military forces. After 1944 itwas used by the Soviet military units. The airport kept its military purpose until September 2011.
In 2006, a contract was signed between Albena AD and the Ministry of Defense, and the airport in Balchik was used for civil flights, but the military had priority and the flights of Albena were performed only when they did not interfere with the activity of the air force.
The airport is used by small private airlines. In addition to them, there will be other aircrafts, which are for organized trips of visitors to the Bulgarian Black Sea coast – tourists from Albena and the Golden Sands.