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Executive power lay in the hands of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and Chief Secretary for Irelandwho were appointed by the British government. Ireland sent members of parliament to the House of Commons of the United Kingdomand Irish representative peers elected 28 of their own number to sit for life in the House of Lords.

Great Famine (Ireland)

Rent collection was left in the hands of the landlords' agents, or middlemen. This assured the landlord of a regular income, and relieved them of direct responsibility, while leaving tenants open to exploitation by the middlemen. At the top of the "social pyramid" was the " ascendancy class ", the English and Anglo-Irish families who owned most of the land and held more or less unchecked power over their tenants.

Some of their estates were vast; for example, the Earl of Lucan owned more than 60, acres  km2.

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Many of these absentee landlords lived in England. The rent revenue—collected from "impoverished tenants" who were paid minimal wages to raise crops and livestock for export [17] —was mostly sent to England.

They established a Royal Commissionchaired by the Earl of Devonto enquire into the laws regarding the occupation of land. Daniel O'Connell described this commission as sligo trading co limited site- ul oficial one-sided", being composed of landlords, with no tenant representation. There was no hereditary loyalty, feudal tie, or mitigating tradition of paternalism as existed in Britain, as the Anglo-Irish aristocracy that supplanted the Gaelic aristocracy in the 17th century was of a different religion and newer.

The Earl of Clare observed of landlords that "confiscation is their common title".

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With the peasantry "brooding over their discontent in sullen indignation" in the words of the Earl of Clarethe landlords largely viewed the countryside as a hostile place in which to live. Some landlords visited their property only once or twice in a lifetime, if ever. They would split a holding into smaller and smaller parcels so as to increase the amount of rent they could obtain. Tenants could be evicted for reasons such as non-payment of rents which were highor a landlord's decision to raise sheep instead of grain crops.

A cottier paid his rent by working for the landlord.

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Most tenants had no security of tenure on the land; as tenants "at will", they could be turned out whenever the landlord chose. The only exception to this arrangement was in Ulster where, under a practice known as "tenant right"a tenant was compensated for any improvement they made to their holding.

According to Woodham-Smith, the commission stated that "the superior prosperity and tranquility of Ulster, compared with the rest of Ireland, were due to tenant right".

Woodham-Smith writes that, in these circumstances, "industry and enterprise were extinguished and a peasantry created which was one of the most destitute in Europe".

Preistoria și protoistoria Irlandei[ modificare modificare sursă ] Primii oameni care au venit pe insula Irlanda au fost vânători-culegătoriprezența omului în acest teritoriu datând din paleoliticcu cca Astfel, Diodorus Siculus și Strabon spuneau despre locuitorii insulei că practicau canibalismul.

Holdings were so small that no crop other than potatoes would suffice to feed a family. Shortly before the famine, the British government reported that poverty was so widespread that one-third of all Irish small holdings could not support the tenant families after rent was paid; the families survived only by earnings as seasonal migrant labour in England and Scotland.

Two-thirds of people depended on agriculture for their survival, but rarely received a working wage. They had to work for their landlords in return for the patch of land they needed to grow enough food for their own families.

This was the system which forced Ireland's peasantry into monoculturesince only the potato could be grown in sufficient quantity to meet nutritional needs. The potato was not popular at first; however, after an unusual promotion campaign that was supported by landowners and members of royalty, who wanted their tenants to plant and eat the crop, it rose in popularity.

By tothe potato had become a staple food of the poor, especially in winter.

For the labourer, "a potato wage" shaped the expanding agrarian economy. Ireland had been used to pasture cows for centuries. The British colonised The British taste for beef had a devastating impact on the impoverished and disenfranchised people of Eventually, cows took over much of Ireland, leaving the native population virtually dependent on the potato for survival.

General crop failures, through disease or frost, were recorded in, and In andthe potato crop failed in Munster and Connaught. In andMayoDonegaland Galway suffered likewise.

In,anddry rot and curl caused serious losses, and in the potato failed in Ulster. Widespread failures throughout Ireland occurred in, and According to Woodham-Smith, "the unreliability of the potato was an accepted fact in Ireland".

InIrish newspapers carried reports concerning a disease which for two years had attacked the potato crops in America. Ships from BaltimorePhiladelphiaor New York City could have carried diseased potatoes from these areas to European ports.

Paddock [57] posited that the blight was transported via potatoes being carried to feed passengers on clipper ships sailing from America to Ireland. By mid-Augustit had reached much of northern and central Europe; Belgium, The Netherlands, northern France, and southern England had all already been affected.

A week sligo trading co limited site- ul oficial, on 23 August, it reported that "A fearful malady has broken out among the potato crop In Belgium the fields are said to be completely desolated.

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There is hardly a sound sample in Covent Garden market As for cure for this distemper, there is none. Only when the crop was lifted harvested in October, did the scale of destruction become apparent.

Few had been sown, so, despite average yields, hunger continued. Since over three million Irish people were totally dependent on potatoes for food, hunger and famine were inevitable.

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The Town Council of Belfast met and made similar suggestions, but neither body asked for charity, according to John Mitchelone of the leading Repealers.

One of the first things he suggested was the introduction of " Tenant-Right " as practised in Ulster, sligo trading co limited site- ul oficial the landlord a fair rent for his land, but sligo trading co limited site- ul oficial the tenant compensation for any money he might have laid out on the land in permanent improvements. He suggested that, if Ireland had a domestic Parliament, the ports would be thrown open and the abundant crops raised in Ireland would be kept for the people of Ireland, as the Dublin parliament had done during the food shortages of the s.

O'Connell maintained that only an Irish parliament would provide both food and employment for the people. He said that repeal of the Act of Union was a necessity depozit minim pentru opțiuni Ireland's only hope. It established the widespread tranzacționare cu tendințe reale that British actions during the famine and their treatment of the Irish was a deliberate effort to murder the Irish.

It contained a sentence that has since become famous: "The Almighty, indeed, sent the potato blight, but the English created the Famine.

He was convicted by a packed jury under the newly enacted Treason Felony Act and sentenced to 14 years transportation to Bermuda.

That was to retain in the country the food raised by her people until the people were fed.

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It was unsuccessful. Irish food prices promptly dropped.

Merchants lobbied against the export ban, but government in the s overrode their protests. Lyons characterised the initial response of the British government to the early, less severe phase of the famine as "prompt and relatively successful".

The government hoped that they would not "stifle private enterprise" and that their actions would not act as a disincentive to local relief efforts. Due to poor weather conditions, the first shipment did not arrive in Ireland until the beginning of February He resigned the premiership in December, but the opposition was unable to form a government and he was re-appointed.

Peel was forced to resign as prime minister on 29 June, and the Whig leader, Lord John Russellbecame prime minister. The new Whig administration, influenced by the doctrine of laissez-faire[14] believed that the market would provide the food needed. They refused to interfere with the movement of food to England, then halted the previous government's food and relief works, leaving many hundreds of thousands of people without access to work, money, or food. To continue receiving relief, hundreds were instructed to travel many miles in bad weather.

A large number died on the journey.

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Charles Trevelyanwho was in charge of the administration of government relief, limited the Government's food aid programme because of a firm belief in laissez-faire. The costs of the Poor Law fell primarily on the local landlords, some of whom in turn attempted to reduce their liability by evicting their tenants.

The landed proprietors in Ireland were held in Britain to have created the conditions that led to the famine. It allowed proprietors to suck the very life-blood of that wretched race". GregoryM. Of this Law, Mitchel wrote that "it is the able-bodied idler only who is to be fed—if he attempted to till but one rood of ground, he dies". This simple method of ejectment was called "passing paupers through the workhouse"—a man went in, a pauper came out.

Estates with debts were then auctioned off at low prices.

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Wealthy British speculators purchased the lands and "took a harsh view" of the tenant farmers who continued renting. The rents were raised and tenants evicted to create large cattle grazing pastures.

Between andsome 50, families were evicted.

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The Pictorial Times, Many Irish people, notably Mitchel, believed that Strategie de calitate pentru opțiuni continued to produce sufficient food to feed its population during the famine, and starvation resulted from exports. According to historian James Donnelly, "the picture of Irish people starving as food was exported was the most powerful image in the nationalist construct of the Famine".

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The amount of food exported in late was only one-tenth the amount of potato harvest lost to blight. Only by selling food, some of which would inevitably be exported, could a "virtuous circle" be created whereby the rents and rates would be paid, and the workhouses funded.

Relief through the workhouse system was simply overwhelmed by the enormous scale and duration of the famine. Nicolas McEvoy, parish priest of Kellswrote in October On my most minute personal inspection of the potato crop in this most fertile potato-growing locale is founded my inexpressibly painful conviction that one family in twenty of the people will not have a single potato left on Christmas day next.

Many are the fields I have examined and testimony the most solemn can I tender, that in the great bulk of those fields all the potatoes sizable enough to be sent to table are irreparably damaged, while for the remaining comparatively sounder fields very little hopes are grid strategia forex in consequence of the daily rapid development of the deplorable disease.

With starvation at our doors, grimly staring us, vessels laden with our sole hopes of existence, our provisions, are hourly wafted from our every port.

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From one milling establishment I have last night seen not less than fifty dray loads of meal moving on to Drogheda, thence to go to feed the foreigner, leaving starvation and death the sure and certain fate of the toil and sweat that raised this food. For their respective inhabitants England, Holland, Scotland, Germany, are taking early the necessary precautions—getting provisions from every possible part of the globe; and I ask are Irishmen alone unworthy the sympathies of a paternal gentry or a paternal Government?

Let Irishmen themselves take heed before the provisions are gone. Let those, too, who have sheep, and oxen, and haggards. Self-preservation is the first law of nature. The right of the starving to try and sustain existence is a right far and away paramount to every right that property confers.

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He expressed the view that the resources of Ireland were still abundantly adequate to maintain the population, and that, until those resources had been utterly exhausted, he hoped that there was no one in "Ireland who will so degrade himself as to ask the aid of a subscription from England".

He suggested that it has been carefully inculcated by the British Press "that the moment Ireland fell into distress, she became an abject beggar at England's gate, and that she even craved alms from all mankind".

He further suggested that in Ireland no one ever asked alms or favours of any kind from England or any other nation, but that it was England herself that begged for Ireland.

He also claimed that it was England that "sent 'round the hat over all the globe, asking a penny for the love of God to relieve the poor Irish", and, constituting herself the agent of all that charity, took all the profit of it. President James K. Most significantly, on 25 March Pius IX issued the encyclical Praedecessores nostroswhich called the whole Catholic world to contribute moneywise and spiritually to Irish relief.

The British Relief Association was one such group. Founded on 1 January by Lionel de RothschildAbel Smithand other prominent bankers and aristocrats, the Association raised money throughout England, America, and Australia; their funding drive was benefited by a "Queen's Letter", a letter from Queen Victoria appealing for money to relieve the distress in Ireland.

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It was an amazing gesture. Pennsylvania was the second most important state for famine relief in the US and the second largest shipping port for aid to Ireland. Roman Catholics, Methodists, Quakers, Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Lutherans, Moravian and Jewish groups put aside their differences in the name of humanity to help out the Irish. Historian Harvey Strum claims that "The states ignored all their racial, religious, and political differences to support the cause for relief.